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Memphis
      

  The present situation of the ancient capital of Egypt could hardly be put more cogently, for very little of the former glory of the metropolis remains.
A few colossal royal statues, the great alabaster sphinx, the embalming house of the Apis bulls, and the remains of the great temple of Ptah can still be seen among palm groves near the village of Mitrahina, some 12 miles (20 km) south of Cairo. Founded as a royal citadel in the Early Dynastic period, Memphis rose to become the undisputed center of the country under the Old Kingdom.
It lay on the dividing line between Upper and Lower Egypt, was the formal capital of the first nome of Lower Egypt, and was also known as “the balance of the Two Lands.” The Greek name Memphis derives from Men-nefer-Pepi, the name of the pyramid town and the pyramid of Pepy I (6th Dynasty) at Saqqara. The turbulent history of the city continued into the 12th / 13th centuries A.D., when Memphis finally fell victim to intensive plundering of its stone for buildings in Cairo.
Modern excavations in the old city area still take place, but now have to contend with a groundwater level much higher than in the past, and with increasing settlement of the area
 
  The temple of Path  
  The Creator god Path was venerated as the patron deity of Memphis. With  the lion headed goddess Sekhmet and the lotus flower god Nefertem , he was a member of the city scared triad.
The temple of path was one of the largest temple complexes in Egypt, but it was so totally destroyed that not even its ground plan can now be made out.

Only the mighty western hall built by Ramesses II can to some extent be reconstructed, It marked  the western entrance to the temple precinct, inside which there was a pylon, and beyond the pylon a hypostyle hall with 16 papyrus columns arranged in four rows at the center, and surrounded by lower columns.

The temple it self, over 186 ft (300m) in length, adjoined the hall to east, and it seems likely that all major rules from the old kingdom onward turned their minds to making additions.

As late  as the Ptolemaic period the entire precinct was surrounded by a gigantic trapezoid enclosure wall , maximum measurements 2067x1574(630x480m) 

 
 
  The  Alabaster Sphinx   

The mighty proportions of the temple of Ptah called for comparably impressive sculptural ornamentation of the pylons and courtyard layouts.

The garden of monuments at Memphis contains the colossal calcite figure of a sphinx found in 1912 by the famous archeologist W.M flinders Petrie not far from its present location.

The severe damage to the right side is the result of the long term effect of ground water.
The ruler's head is enveloped in royal head cloth with Uraeus on his forehead, while a plaited divine beard rolled up at the end is attached to the chain.

since there is no inscription on either the breast  or the plinth, the sphinx can be dated only by stylistic criteria, which suggest that Amenophis  2 (18th dynasty) was the pharaoh concerned.

in Spite of its monumental size and weight (28x14 ft, 8.70x470m 80 tonnes) the sphinx was probably one of the axis of the temple in the court yard or at one of the entrance.

As other statues found in Memphis , the sphinx shows some server water damage too     

 
 
The Pyramid of Cheops

The largest pyramid ever built in Egypt was known as the horizon of Cheops. This is building, astonishing in the precision of its execution

The Pyramid of Chephren

king Chephren had his pyramid built in Giza at a diagonal angle to the building erected by Cheops.

The Pyramid of Mycerinus

The modest height of the pyramid of Mycerinus, which formerly reached 216 ft (66 m), may have been a country...
 
The Great Sphinx

The figure of the great Sphinx was worked from a rocky out crop. The colossal sculpture (240 x 65 ft; 73.5 x 20 m)
 
The Solar Barque of Cheops

In 1954, yet another sensational find was in the necropolis area of Giza, already far from lacking in major discoveries. While work was in progress directly in front of the south side of the pyramid of Cheops.
 
Egyptian Museum

The first Egyptian Museum of Pharaonic antiquities was established in 1863 by the famous French archeologist, Auguste Mariette. Afterwards, because of the many Pharaonic treasurers discovered in Egypt .
 
Memphis

The present situation of the ancient capital of Egypt could hardly be put more cogently, for very little of the former glory of the metropolis remains. A few colossal royal statues, the great alabaster sphinx.

Saqqara

Beside the cemetery area of the western Thebes, Saqqara is the most extensive mortuary town in Egypt, and it is known to have been used from the early Dynastic period (First / Second Dynasties)

The Pyramid Complex of Djoser

The great burial district of King Djoser forms the lonely peak in the development of the royal burial sites of the early 3rd millennium B.C. which combine elements of the upper Egypt and lower Egyptian traditions.
 
Dahshur

Only a few miles south of Saqqara stretches the important and extensive pyramid field of Dahshur (opened to the public 1996). Immediately on the edge of the fertile land lie the brick buildings of tree rules of the Twelfth Dynasty.
 
The Coptic Museum

The  Coptic museum, founded in 1908 by Marcus Simaika Pasha, contains the largest collection of Coptic monuments in the world.

The el-Moallaqa Church

The church of the Virgin Mary was constructed above the two 59-ft (18-m) towers of the southern gateway of the fortress of Babylon

Jewish Monuments

The Moses Ben Maimon synagogue is an important historical and religious monument in Egypt, and its restoration will return a piece of Jewish heritage to Egypt.
 
Al-Azhar Mosque

No other mosque in Cairo surpasses Al-Azhar , "The Flowering," in tradition and importance. Soon after its foundation in 970 A.D. it became the site of university studies, which continued there to the present.
 
Ibn Tulun Mosque

Cairo owns one of its oldest and most beautiful mosques to Ahmed Ibn Tulun, founder of the short lived Tulunid dynasty.
 
Mosque of Sultan Hasan

The mosque built below the citadel by Sultan Hasan 91347-1361) is among the outstanding achievements of Islamic architecture.
 
Muhammad Ali Mosque ( The Citadel of Cairo)

The citadel of Cairo was built under Ayyubid dynasty between 1176 and 1207, and later extended to Mamluk and Ottoman pashas, Sultan Al-Nasir Muhammad (1294 - 1340) had a mosque as well as his principal palace built there.

Bab el-Futuh

In the lat 11th century Vizier Badr Al Jamali had a massive fortress laid out around the residence of Cairo

Mosque of Qait Bey

This complex is among the finest buildings in Cairo, It consists of a portal area with well, a minaret.
 
Discover Cairo

Cairo has been the living heart of Egypt for over 1000 years.As the capital of the country and the seat of government,....
Cairo Attractions 

Cairo attractions and sightseeing attractions in Cairo. Book Cairo attraction tours with Select Egypt
Cairo Holidays

special discount holiday packages offers for Cairo travel. We give you tailor made holiday deals for Cairo travel
Cairo Tours & Excursions

special discount holiday packages offers for Cairo excursions. We give you tailor made holiday deals for Cairo travel
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Cairo Hotels

Choose from over 89 Cairo hotels with huge savings. Whatever your budget, compare prices and read reviews for all our Cairo hotels
Cairo Map

Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the most important city in the land of the Nile. Greater Cairo, being the largest city in Africa,
Cairo Monuments

The best monuments of Cairo. Information about Cairo monuments, landmarks, historic buildings and museums in Cairo.
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