Select Egypt Logo

Home   About us   Contact us   Booking & Payment    Why choose Select Egypt?
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
   
   
Best Packages
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
 
 
   
Nile Cruises
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
   
   
Nile Cruises
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
   
   
sightseeing tours
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
   
   
transportation
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
Tailor made holidays to Egypt
   
   
travel egypt
 
 

The Pyramid Complex of Djoser
      

  The great burial district of King Djoser forms the lonely peak in the development of the royal burial sites of the early 3rd millennium B.C., which combine elements of the Upper and Lowers Egyptian traditions.

The various structures around the pyramid were the first sacral building in stone, and they offered the deceased pharaoh lasting proof of his life after death.

With the exception of his tomb and the mortuary temple, which was the burial place and cult center, the other buildings were executed as fašades only; they define their function but are not incorporated in any concrete sequences of action.

This concept of a residence in the afterlife that would be used for eternity evolved in several buildings phases like the pyramid itself, it was not and inspired original design by Imhotep, although as site manager he directed most of the project.

It was only later that he was seen as the inventor of building in dressed stone, a wise man who came to be revered as a god. Despite intensive efforts the search for Imhotep’s tomb, which was certainly located to the north of the Step Pyramid, has so far been unsuccessful.

Not only was the achievement of Djoser’s brilliant official to live in the minds of those who came after him for thousands of years, the building itself was regarded as particularly admirable in the late period.

The reliefs in the false door niches of the south tomb, for example, served as models for similar scenes in the Palace of King Apries (Twenty- sixth Dynasty) at Memphis.
 
  The Step Pyramid  
  The Step Pyramid of King Djoser was the first monumental building in stone in the history of mankind. It stands on the northern end of the great court.

Originally the tomb was intended to be a huge mastaba in stone, but it then underwent several extensions. Only later was the building changed into a structure in four steps; these were then extended again until the pyramidal from was finally reached in the sixth stage, at a height of nearly 200 feet (60 m).

The pyramid is built of relatively small blocks of stone and these were then covered in Tura limestone, while the stepped structure was retained.

The entrance to the tomb of King Djoser is on the north side, near the mortuary temple, where the small chamber of status (Serdab) containing the celebrated seated figure of the king was revealed.

The subterranean chambers (down to a depth of 100 feet or 32 m), including the burial chamber of the king of red granite, are labyrinthine; the storerooms alone held ten thousands of stone vessels.

 
 
  The Great Enclosure Wall  
  The entire areal of the pyramid (1771 x 900 ft or 545 x 287 m) is enclosed by a mightily wall built of blocks of limestone and subdivided by niches.

 It is 32 ft (10.5 m) high and also subdivided by 14 false gateways; the only real entrance is in the south east corner.

This gateway leads into a long colonnade that was once roofed; ribbed engaged columns were used here, imitating bundles of reeds.

The roof beams in the entrance corridor and a wing of the door that has been opened, as well as a roof tile, illustrate the principle of blind and “dummy” architecture, for the earlier models in wood have been translated into the new material, stone here.

 
  The Palace of the South  
   To the east of the pyramid stand two false buildings each with its own court.

They are known as the “Palace of the South” and the “Palace of the North” and they represent the idea of the dualism of Egypt.

Their external form is modeled on the cult chapels of prehistoric times.

The fašades are covered with four slender fluted half- columns, the inside two of which flank the entrance. The entrance zone of the “Palace of the South” has been reconstructed and it has a decorative band directly above the door with pointed elements known as the “Kheker frieze”.

 
  The Heb-Sed Court  
  The small Heb- Sed courtyard is one of the finest individual sites in the cult precinct.
Originally it was accessible down a long passage leading from the entrance.

In its present form the court and the chapels flanking it are the life’s work of the French archaeologist Jean- Philippe Lauer, who has been studying the Djoser complex since the 1930s and is directing the reconstruction work.

 His findings have greatly furthered our knowledge and understanding of these buildings, which bear no relief decorations or inscriptions that, might assist their interpretation.

In their two different basic types the chapels, that are in blind (or “dummy”) architecture, are modeled on the canonical shrines of upper and Lower Egypt.

Together here as regional shrines of the gods they symbolize the entire country, and so offer the deceased pharaoh a kind of cult stage for the eternal celebration of his jubilee as ruler (Egyptian “Heb-Sed”).

However, the rites of the Sed festival were actually preformed in the King’s palace in Memphis. Unfortunately nothing is known about these facilities.  

 
  The South Tomb  
  The south Tomb, named after its position in the burial compound, is in the shape of a mastaba with a vaulted roof. On the court side it has an extension, the outer wall of which is subdivided by shallow niches, while the top is crowned with a magnificent frieze of uraeae.

The function of this second tomb was a subject of controversy for a long time, but it is probably right to see it as the mythical burial place required for the Sed festival and indented for the regeneration of the ruler.

Together with the great court before the pyramid, which if the fictive location of the cult ceremonies and the small Heb- Sed court with its chapels for the gods, the South tomb was one of the essential structures in this major royal festival 

 
  King Djoser performing the Sed-festival  
  Like the genuine tomb of King Djoser under his pyramid the South Tomb also has a burial chamber in red granite; it lies at the foot of a deep shaft.

As in the actual tomb some of the surrounding chambers were given particular prominence by covering the walls with small turquoise faience tiles.

These little vertical tiles were attached to the wall with mortar between stone strips.

They were additionally held in place with a thin string made of vegetable fibers that ran through little eyes on the back of the tiles.

The carpet-patterned structure of the walls which this created in this palace of eternity is interrupted by niches designed like false doors with raised reliefs on their rear walls.

The depictions show king Djoser performing the carious ceremonies in the Sed festival, although it remain an open question whether the ruler ever actually had to perform this ritual.

But the image remained in use right down to Greek and Roman times as a highly effective symbol of the physical power of the pharaoh.

On the outer frame of the niches the King’s titles are inscribed.

The name of Djoser was not used in his own time, he was known by his Horus-name as Netjeri-Khet (“divine in body”).

 
 
The Pyramid of Cheops

The largest pyramid ever built in Egypt was known as the horizon of Cheops. This is building, astonishing in the precision of its execution

The Pyramid of Chephren

king Chephren had his pyramid built in Giza at a diagonal angle to the building erected by Cheops.

The Pyramid of Mycerinus

The modest height of the pyramid of Mycerinus, which formerly reached 216 ft (66 m), may have been a country...
 
The Great Sphinx

The figure of the great Sphinx was worked from a rocky out crop. The colossal sculpture (240 x 65 ft; 73.5 x 20 m)
 
The Solar Barque of Cheops

In 1954, yet another sensational find was in the necropolis area of Giza, already far from lacking in major discoveries. While work was in progress directly in front of the south side of the pyramid of Cheops.
 
Egyptian Museum

The first Egyptian Museum of Pharaonic antiquities was established in 1863 by the famous French archeologist, Auguste Mariette. Afterwards, because of the many Pharaonic treasurers discovered in Egypt .
 
Memphis

The present situation of the ancient capital of Egypt could hardly be put more cogently, for very little of the former glory of the metropolis remains. A few colossal royal statues, the great alabaster sphinx.
 
Saqqara

Beside the cemetery area of the western Thebes, Saqqara is the most extensive mortuary town in Egypt, and it is known to have been used from the early Dynastic period (First / Second Dynasties)
 
The Pyramid Complex of Djoser

The great burial district of King Djoser forms the lonely peak in the development of the royal burial sites of the early 3rd millennium B.C. which combine elements of the upper Egypt and lower Egyptian traditions.
 
Dahshur

Only a few miles south of Saqqara stretches the important and extensive pyramid field of Dahshur (opened to the public 1996). Immediately on the edge of the fertile land lie the brick buildings of tree rules of the Twelfth Dynasty.
 
The Coptic Museum

The  Coptic museum, founded in 1908 by Marcus Simaika Pasha, contains the largest collection of Coptic monuments in the world.
 
The el-Moallaqa Church

The church of the Virgin Mary was constructed above the two 59-ft (18-m) towers of the southern gateway of the fortress of Babylon
 
Jewish Monuments

The Moses Ben Maimon synagogue is an important historical and religious monument in Egypt, and its restoration will return a piece of Jewish heritage to Egypt.
 
Al-Azhar Mosque

No other mosque in Cairo surpasses Al-Azhar , "The Flowering," in tradition and importance. Soon after its foundation in 970 A.D. it became the site of university studies, which continued there to the present.
 
Ibn Tulun Mosque

Cairo owns one of its oldest and most beautiful mosques to Ahmed Ibn Tulun, founder of the short lived Tulunid dynasty.
 
Mosque of Sultan Hasan

The mosque built below the citadel by Sultan Hasan 91347-1361) is among the outstanding achievements of Islamic architecture.
 
Muhammad Ali Mosque ( The Citadel of Cairo)

The citadel of Cairo was built under Ayyubid dynasty between 1176 and 1207, and later extended to Mamluk and Ottoman pashas, Sultan Al-Nasir Muhammad (1294 - 1340) had a mosque as well as his principal palace built there.

Bab el-Futuh

In the lat 11th century Vizier Badr Al Jamali had a massive fortress laid out around the residence of Cairo

Mosque of Qait Bey

This complex is among the finest buildings in Cairo, It consists of a portal area with well, a minaret.
 
Discover Cairo

Cairo has been the living heart of Egypt for over 1000 years.As the capital of the country and the seat of government,....
Cairo Attractions 

Cairo attractions and sightseeing attractions in Cairo. Book Cairo attraction tours with Select Egypt
Cairo Holidays

special discount holiday packages offers for Cairo travel. We give you tailor made holiday deals for Cairo travel
Cairo Tours & Excursions

special discount holiday packages offers for Cairo excursions. We give you tailor made holiday deals for Cairo travel
Read More >> Read More >> Read More >> Read More >>
 
 
Cairo Hotels

Choose from over 89 Cairo hotels with huge savings. Whatever your budget, compare prices and read reviews for all our Cairo hotels
Cairo Map

Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the most important city in the land of the Nile. Greater Cairo, being the largest city in Africa,
Cairo Monuments

The best monuments of Cairo. Information about Cairo monuments, landmarks, historic buildings and museums in Cairo.
Read More >> Read More >> Read More >>